Saturday 9 January 2021

Chapter: 14 Rise of the New Powers in the South


Chapter: 14 Rise of the New Powers in the South


1) When was Shivaji born?

April 20, 1627 AD

2) Where was Shivaji born?


3) What was the name of Shivaji's father?

 Shahaji Bhonsle

4) Who was the mother of Shivaji?

Jija Bai

5) When and where did Shivaji's coronations take place?

1674 AD at Raigarh

6) What title did Shivaji assume?


7) When was the treaty of Purandhar signed?

1665 AD

8) What was Shivaji's Council of Eight Ministers called?


9) By what name was Maratha Prime Minister called?


10) What was the name of the first Peshwa of the Marathas?

Balaji Vishwanath

11) Who is called the second founder of the Maratha kingdom?

Balaji Vishwanath

12) Who is considered the greatest Peshwa of the Marathas?

Bajirao -I

13) What were the main units of Shivaji's administration?

Provinces, Parganas and Village

14) In how many provinces did Shivaji divide his kingdom?


15) What was the head of the province called?


16) What was the head of the Pargana called?


17) What was the the head of a village called?


18) Name the highest court of the Maratha kingdom.

Hazir Majlis

19) Which system of revenue was prevelent in Maratha empire in the place of Zagirdari System?

Rayatwari System

20) What were the main sources of income of the Maratha kingdom?

Land revenue, Chauth and Sardeshmukhi

21) In which form the land revenue was collected?

In cash or produce

22) Whose land reforms did Shivaji implement?

Todar Mal

23) Which scale was used by Shivaji to measure land?


24) Which system of land revenue was abolished by Shivaji?

Zagirdari system

25) What was the most important part of Maratha army?

The horse riders

26) Who established the state of Hyderabad?


27) Who was the most famous ruler of Mysore?

Tipu Sultan



Three marks question answers


Question 1. Briefly share information about Shivaji.

Answer:-Shivaji was born on 20th April 1627 AD at The Fort Poona of Shivner. Shivaji’s mother’s name was Jeeja Bai. Shivaji's father's name was ShahjiBhosle. Shiva ji, with his bravery and ability, established a vast Maratha empire in his capital, Raigarh, in 1674. He had also established a very good governance system. He died in 1680.


Question 2. Who was Afzal Khan?

Answer: - Afzal Khan was the general of Sultan Ali Adil Shah of Bijapur. The Prince of Bijapur had sent Afzal Khan to take action against Shivaji. Afzal Khan invited Shivaji to talk to him at the Fort of Pratapgarh. When the two began to hug in The Fort of Pratapgarh in November 1659 AD, Afzal Khan tried to kill Shivaji with a sword, but Shivaji was the first to kill Afzal Khan.


Question 3. Explain five features of Shivaji's administration.

Answer:-Shivaji laid the foundation of a good administration. The head of the state was called Chhatrapati (Raja). Its powers were unlimited but they used their powers for the benefit of the people. The state was divided into pranas, villages and villages for the convenience of administration. All farmed land was measured. The Ryatwadi system was abolished and the Ryatwadi system was implemented. Justice was done according to Hinduism. A policy of tolerance towards all religions was adopted. Shiva ji established a powerful and disciplined army.


Question 4. What do you know about Shivaji's provincial system?

Answer:-Shivajiji had divided his kingdom into four properties to run the administration in a good manner. These are the names of the

1. Uttar Pradesh 2. Southern Province 3. South East 4. Western Province. The chief of each province was called subedar, his main function was to maintain peace in the state and work for the welfare of the people. He was appointed by Chhatrapati and was responsible for his work. 8 ministers were appointed to support him as the Centre.


Question 5.What is the meaning of ‘Chauth’ and ‘Sardesh-mukhi’ and also its importance?

Answer:-Chauth and The Sardeshmukhi were two types of taxes which were collected during shivaji's time. This was a quarter of the total revenue. All the deshmukhs and landlords of Maharashtra considered Shivaji as their head or chief landlord. Hence, he gave one tenth of his produce to Shivaji. So the name of this tax was Sardeshmukhi. This led to a substantial increase in Shiva's income.


Question 6. What is the significance of the third battle of Panipat in the history of Marathas?

Answer:-The third battle of Panipat in the history of North Marathas in 1761 AD proved to be very destructive. In this battle, The Army commander of Maratha Sadashiv Rao Bhao and The Son of Peshwa, Bhassrao were killed. Over two lakh soldiers were killed. There was no family in Maratha where there was no grief. PeshwaBalajiBaji Rao could not bear the shock and died, causing great loss to the dignity and dominance of The Marathyas. Their power was lost from Bengal, Bihar, Abd, Punjab and Mysore.


Question 7. What did Balaji Vishwanath do in strengthening the status of King Shahu?

Answer:-When Shahuji had been imprisoned by the Mughals in 1707 AD, his condition was quite shaky. BalajiVishwanath fully supported Shahuji in such a situation. Balaji turned his back on shahrukh's many opponents. Balaji encouraged agriculture with the aim of strengthening the economic condition of the state. Fourth, the arrangement for collection of the principal taxes was made better. BalajiVishwanath signed an important treaty with the Mughals in 1719 AD. According to this treaty, the Mughals took Shahuji as the ruler of Maratha.


Question 8. Which were the chief Maratha Sardars and their territories?

Answer:-Even before the battle of Panipat, five different Marathas had come into existence. Peshwa himself ruled from Pune. He was the head of the Maratha Sangh. Gaikwad was the ruler of Sardara in Gujarat. The BhosleSardars were ruling in Central India, including Orissa. The Sindhi Sardars ruled in Bundelkhand. Chhattarpatti was ruled in satara. Holkar ruled Malwa. All the Maratha sardars were engaged in a struggle and were unaware of the rapidly growing power of the British.


Six marks question answers:-


Question 1. Describe the civil and military system of Sivaji?


Explain the main features of Sivaji’s Administration.

Answer:-Civil administration of Sivaji.


1. Central Administration:


(a) Chhatrapati: Shivaji was the head of the Central Government. Their powers were infinite. His wish was taken as command. They had the right to war or treaty with any ruler. The entire army of the state was under him. All the major positions of the State were appointed by him. But the Sivajis never misused their powers. The main objective of his administration was the welfare of the people.


(b) Ashta Pradhan: Eight ministers were appointed to support the administration of the administration. They were called as the ashtapradhan. They were appointed by Sivaji and were responsible for all their duties.


(2) Provincial Administration: In order to run hisadmintration efficiently shivaji had divided his kingdom in for Provinces.These provinceswere: 1) North Province 2) South Province 3) South-east Province 4) West Province. The head of each Province was called Subedar.Hismain function was to maintain peace in the province and to work for the welfare of the people.


(3) Pargana’s administration: The provinces were further divided into manyparganas. The chief of the parganas was called collector. His main duty was to maintain law and order in the pargana.He was also given military assistance for this purpose. His work was inspected by the subedar and the Chhatarpati.

(4) Village administration: The parganas were divided into village.It was the smallest unit of administration. The chief of the village was called Patel.

He looked after the administration of the villages with the assistance of the panchayat.


(5) Judicial administration: Shivaji’s judicial system was suitable for his time. It is not worthy that Shivaji while imparting justice was extremely impartial. The criminals were given harsh punishments. In the villages the panchayats decided civil cases. The Patels decided criminal cases. The supreme court of the statewas known as HajirMajlis.


Question 2. Give a brief description of Shivaji’s conquests.


Explain any five important conquists of Shivaji.


Give a brief account of Shivaji’s relations with Sultan of Bijapur.

Answer:-The account of Shivaji’s rise or his conquests is as follows:-


1. Early conquests of Shivaji 1646-48 A.D.:- The opportunity to embark ona career of conquests came early to Shivaji. In 1646 A.D, Ali AdilShah, the Sultan of Bijapur fell ill. Shivaji was on the look out of such a golden opportunity. By 1648 A.D. Shivaji had captured the fort of Purandhar, kondans, Konkan, kalyani and singhgarh. Shivaji also gained control of Pune because of the death of Dadajikonddev in 1648 A.D.


2. Conquest of Javli 1656 A.D.:-Shivji attacked Javli in 1656 A.D. and restored his campaign of conquests. This region was under Chandra Rao More. Besides, Shivaji could not expand his kingdom in the south-west without the kingdom of Javli. To remove this hindrance Shivaji had to act in a crafty manner. He got Chandra Rao murdered and attacked Javli. Shivaji captured Javli with ease.


3. Invasion of Afzal Khan 1659 A.D.:-Bijapur sent a large army under the leadership of Azal Khan in 1659 A.D. Afzal Khan conspired to kill Shivaji. He invited Shivaji to come for negotiations to the fort of Partapgarh. In the fort of Partapgarh when the two met on 2"? November, 1659 A.D. and were embracing each other, Afzal Khan tried to kill Shivaji with thrust of a sword. But Shivaji managed to kill him a Baghnkha (tiger-claw). On hearing of Afzal Khan’sdeath his soldiers ran helter-skelter. Shivaji’ssoilders robbed them. This victory boostedShivaji’s spirits and enthusiasm.


4. Invasion of Shaista Khan 1660-63 A.D.:- In 1660 A.D. Shaista Khan advanced with a huge army towards Pune. He plundered many of Shivaji’s territories and captured many forts.Shaista Khan also occupied Pune. ThereforeShivaji had to face many difficulties but he did not lose hope. On the night of 15th April, 1663 A.D. Shivajialongwith 400 soldiers enteredPune in the form of a marriage party. They invaded Shaista Khan suddenly at midnight and gave a hard time to the Mughal forces.


5. Sack of Surat 1664 A.D.:- TheMughals had not even forgotten the defeat of Shaista Khan when Shivaji made another invasion on the Mughal empire. This invasion was made on the famous Mughal port in January 1664 A.D.The Mughal subedar of Surat, Inayat Khan fledand hide in the port of Surat in ordertosavehis life.


Question 3. Give a brief account Tipu Sultan.


Why is Tipu Sultan considered one of the famous rulers of Mysure?


Answer:-In 1782 A.D. afterthe death of Haider Ali, his son Tipu Sultan became the new Sultan of Mysore. When Tipu Sultan ascended the throne the Second Anglo Mysore war was going on. Tipu Sultan continued this war. Since the war of undecided so it came to an end in 1784 A.D. with the treaty of Manglore. Soon Tipu Sultan had come to clash with the Marathas. In fact both the Maratha and TipuSultan could not tolerate the growing power of each other. Therfore, a long struggle ensued between ipu Sultan and the marathas from 1785 A.D. to 1792 A.D. Since Tippu Sultan wanted to use his power against the British, therefore he entered into a treaty with Marathas. According to this treaty, Tipu sultan agreed to give the Marathas a few territories and Rs. 85 lacs. In 1790 A.D. the Third anglo-mysore war startedbetween Tipu Sultan and British. This war continued till 1792 A.D. In this war athoughTipu Sultan put up a bravefight, nevertheless he had to face defeat on account of dissention among his countrymen. According to the treaty of Sri Rangapatnam,, Tipu Sultan agreed to giveRs.30 lacs and half of his kingdomto the British as compensation. Tipu Sultan wanted to avenge this insult. Therefore he started to form a clique with the French. He has refused to accept the subsidiary Alliance of Lord wellesely. Therefore the British invadedMysore in 1799 A.D. Tipu Sultan put up a brave fight. In the end he died fighting for his motherland on 4 May, 1799 A.D. The British occupied most of the regions of Mysore. The rest of the territories they gave to krishan Rao, the Prince of old Mysore dynsty. He accepted the terms of the subsidiary Alliance. In this way the state of Mysore was almost annihilated.